Hi, I'm Donald Sinclair. I'm a science and maths teacher from Greater London Tutors. Today, I'm going to be looking at how to teach various topics. Okay, basic skills like addition need a lot of repetition before they become second nature to a child. One way to make it a lot more fun for them to learn is just through games they're happy to play, and they enjoy and they'll be far more likely to pick it up that way. There are many great games online, if you just go on to the internet, I'm sure you'll find many more, but one great game is a variant on the memory game with cards where you have to turn over and find matching pairs. One way you can tie this into addition is by finding two cards that add up to a number, usually ten. So, for example, you play it with your child and you take turns turning over cards. For example, this one and this one. Well, one and nine make ten. Whenever you find a pair that adds to ten, you remove them and keep them and that counts as one point. Then you get to go again. By repeating this and turning over cards, the child will very quickly find which numbers add up to ten each time. So if they have a go and they find a 5 and a 5, that adds up to ten so they get to keep the cards. And you keep going until all the pairs of cards have been found and whoever has the most pairs of cards wins. Like I say, there are a great many games online if you just have a look I'm sure you'll find many more. A good way to bring in the idea of addition is to go on from the idea of counting. Presumably the child at this point will be able to count up a good range of numbers, at least up to 10. If they have this idea, we can easily add simple numbers up to and below ten. For example, if you want to teach the idea of 5 plus 3, you can bring in the idea that plus simply means count on another 3. So you would start with the 5 and simply count on another 3 in a way that they know. So 5, 6, 7, 8. And they know that the last number they counted to is what the sum is equal to. So 5 plus 3 equals 8. They can do this with any numbers up to the highest number that they know. This can also give the idea of simpler ones like a number plus zero. Very basic mathematical ideas like any number plus zero can be found using this basic approach. If you add zero on, then you're not adding anything on so it's just equal to whatever the number was. You add on one to a number and you're simply counting on and adding on one. Using this, they can add together very small numbers and find out what they are. A good visual way to learn about adding is with the use a number line. Here whenever we add on a number, you are simply moving to the right that amount of times. So if we're doing the simple sum 5 plus 3, you would start at the number 5 and all plus 3 means is you move 3 places to the right. 1, 2, 3, and 5 plus 3 equals 8. If the child is doing a lot of sums like these, and they should be to really drill in the idea into them, then you can simply have a number line written at the top of the page and they can trace in lightly with a pencil each time to find out what the number equals. And these are some basic steps to teach the basics of addition. .