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Overview of Segregation
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Rosa Parks refused to move from her seat on a public bus, famously being
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Hi I'm Zach Toombs for About.com and we'll be talking about racial segregation.The practice of racial segregation is the separation of people in daily public life. It's typically associated with the Jim Crow era beginning in the late 1800s, when public facilities like schools, public transportation, restaurants, and drinking fountains were separated for whites and blacks.In the late 1800s a series of measures sought to prevent blacks from voting through poll taxes, literacy tests and residency requirements, virtually eliminating the opportunity for blacks to participate in public life.
In America, the late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the rise of the Jim Crow era, or De jure segregation in the south and de facto segregation in the north. The difference between the two is the Jim Crow laws mandated the segregation in public places, while de facto segregation was the practice of segregation on the grounds of "common practice."In the north, segregation was not mandated, but was still heavily practiced because "that's just the way it was." Because of this mindset, there was an expectation by many white citizens that blacks sat in the back of buses or were subservient to whites. This was an example of de facto segregation.
It wasn't until 1948 that then-President Harry Truman signed an Executive Order for the integration of the U.S. armed forces. Still, it took the U.S. Army three years — in 1951 — to formally announce plans to desegregate.
The Jim Crow laws officially came to an end through the civil rights act of 1964, but the end of de facto segregation is much harder to calculate.Many African-Americans played pivotal roles in the establishment of the civil rights act of 1964. Martin Luther King Jr. led massive protests, delivered nation stopping speeches, and inspired generations with his civil rights activism. Rosa Parks refused to move from her seat on a public bus, famously being arrested for violating segregation laws. And there were thousands of others who helped desegregate America.
Thanks for watching our overview of Segregation for more information go to About.com
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